A quasi stationary three dimensional model of electric fields and currents in the conductor that includes the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere is created. The results of the three dimensional model are simpler regarding interpretation and explanation than two dimensional ones. Known approaches regarding the ionosphere as a boundary condition at the upper boundary of the atmospheric conductor are analyzed. For the investigation of the electric field penetration from ground into the ionosphere it is sufficient to take into account only integral conductivity of the ionosphere. A mathematical simulation has shown that the resulting electric field in the ionosphere is negligible in contrast to the general point of view that such a penetration is a physical process which potentially creates ionospheric precursors of earthquakes.

Denisenko, V. V.;Ampferer, M.;Pomozov, E. V.;Kitaev, A. V.;Hausleitner, W.;Stangl, G.;Biernat, H. K.
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics
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