The most important models of coupling in the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere system are considered. In some of these models, it is assumed that atmospheric acoustic and acoustic gravity waves (AGWs), which propagate through the atmosphere and reach ionospheric altitudes (resulting in the generation of electric field disturbances and modulation of charged particle density), are generated in the near-Earth atmosphere over the earthquake preparation region. In other models it is assumed that ionospheric disturbances originate owing to the modification of electric fields and currents due to electric processes in the lithosphere or near-Earth atmosphere. It seems impossible to stress on only one model and reject the remaining models because the characteristic spatial scales of effects observed in the ionosphere before earthquakes vary from 200-300 km to several thousand kilometers, and the characteristic times vary from several minutes to several days. We can assume that there are several physical mechanisms by which the lithosphere-ionosphere coupling is actually implemented.

Liperovsky, V. A.;Pokhotelov, O. A.;Meister, C. -V.;Liperovskaya, E. V.
Geomagnetism and Aeronomy
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